[6][33] Constantine divided the expanded city, like Rome, into 14 regions, and ornamented it with public works worthy of an imperial metropolis. Short History of Byzantine Empire and its Capital Constantinople At the beginning of the 4th century, the Roman Empire was tired of fighting the barbarians in the West and the Sassanids (Persians) in the East. The peace terms demanded by Alp Arslan, sultan of the Seljuk Turks, were not excessive, and Romanus accepted them. The Byzantine Empire still held Constantinople and sections of the Balkans and Anatolia, and this much-reduced version of the empire would manage to continue for another 800 years. "As a result Constantinople became seriously depopulated," Talbot concludes. Swift attributed the construction of a series of flying buttresses to shore up the walls of the church, which had been weakened over the centuries by earthquake tremors. Then the two of them slipped away with many of the nobility and embarked for Asia. By the 500s Constantinople was thriving and had become one of the world's great cities. The Justinianic Church of the Holy Apostles was designed in the form of an equal-armed cross with five domes, and ornamented with beautiful mosaics. When Michael assumed power in 856, he became known for excessive drunkenness, appeared in the hippodrome as a charioteer and burlesqued the religious processions of the clergy. [16][17] The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas. The Byzantine Empire. Diocletian chose to rule the east. Beautiful silks from the workshops of Constantinople also portrayed in dazzling colour animals – lions, elephants, eagles, and griffins – confronting each other, or represented Emperors gorgeously arrayed on horseback or engaged in the chase. After the death of Justinian, Arabs, Slavs and Turks attacked the Byzantine borders. Constantine's city became the capitol of the Byzantine Empire. In 1395, Patriarch Anthony actually had to give a speech explaining why the Byzantine emperor was still important.“The holy emperor has a great place in the church, for he is not like other rulers or governors of other regions. [62] In 1171, Constantinople also contained a small community of 2,500 Jews. The palace of Blachernae in the north-west of the city became the main Imperial residence, with the old Great Palace on the shores of the Bosporus going into decline. [68], The Latins took over at least 20 churches and 13 monasteries, most prominently the Hagia Sophia, which became the cathedral of the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople. [81] Afterwards he ordered his soldiers to stop hacking at the city's valuable marbles and 'be satisfied with the booty and captives; as for all the buildings, they belonged to him'. Latin invasion lasted from 1204 to 1261 and it was finally repelled by a Byzantine prince. It should be emphasized that the Eastern and Western Churches have never been able to establish healthy communication for centuries. The population was rising (estimates for Constantinople in the 12th century vary from some 100,000 to 500,000), and towns and cities across the realm flourished. It was especially important for preserving in its libraries manuscripts of Greek and Latin authors throughout a period when instability and disorder caused their mass-destruction in western Europe and north Africa: On the city's fall, thousands of these were brought by refugees to Italy, and played a key part in stimulating the Renaissance, and the transition to the modern world. The importance of Constantinople increased, but it was gradual. [90], The city provided a defence for the eastern provinces of the old Roman Empire against the barbarian invasions of the 5th century. The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern Istanbul, formerly Byzantium). "The Policy of Mehmed II toward the Greek Population of Istanbul and the Byzantine Buildings of the City." It was not an arbitrary decision for Emperor Constantine to establish such a city. Date Name DBQ SZBYZANTINE EMPIRE UNDER IUSTINIAN Historical Context Justinian became emperor in527, he was determined to revive the ancient Roman Empire, to build a new Rome. Yet, to the children of Caine, Constantinople is more than just another capital; and to three methuselahs the city is a bastion of hope, an accomplishment that will survive until the Last Night. From the Augustaeum led a great street, the Mese, lined with colonnades. of those involved). Because it was located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara the land area that needed defensive walls was reduced, and this helped it to present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces, domes, and towers, the result of the prosperity it achieved from being the gateway between two continents (Europe and Asia) and two seas (the Mediterranean and the Black Sea). Mehmed's main concern with Constantinople had to do with solidifying control over the city and rebuilding its defenses. In the Ottoman period Islamic architecture and symbolism were used. This event is known as the fall of Constantinople. Toward the end of Manuel I Komnenos's reign, the number of foreigners in the city reached about 60,000–80,000 people out of a total population of about 400,000 people. In 1090–91, the nomadic Pechenegs reached the walls of Constantinople, where Emperor Alexius I with the aid of the Kipchaks annihilated their army. But the Frenchmen and Flemings were filled with a lust for destruction. The emperor Valens, who hated the city and spent only one year there, nevertheless built the Palace of Hebdomon on the shore of the Propontis near the Golden Gate, probably for use when reviewing troops. 1 on p. 49 for discussion about the Byzantine diplomat sent to, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Great Siege of Constantinople/Second Arab Siege of Constantinople, sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church, The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty, Age of Empires II: The Conquerors Expansion, "Preserving The Intellectual Heritage – Preface", Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades, "The Restoration of Constantinople under Michael VIII", https://www.infezmed.it/media/journal/Vol_19_3_2011_10.pdf, "fall of Constantinople | Facts, Summary, & Significance", Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, "San Marco Basilica | cathedral, Venice, Italy", "Game Informer 218 details (Assassin's Creed, Rayman Origins)", Islamic Ritual Preaching (Khutbas) in a Contested Arena: Shi'is and Sunnis, Fatimids and Abbasids, "AZIZ (365-386/975-996), 15TH Iman – Ismaili.net – Heritage F.I.E.L.D. By the late 1200s, Byzantine power was much reduced in Anatolia, and Turkish warlords on its eastern borders around Nicaea and Sögüt had become serious threats. The partisans of the Blues and the Greens were said[40] to affect untrimmed facial hair, head hair shaved at the front and grown long at the back, and wide-sleeved tunics tight at the wrist; and to form gangs to engage in night-time muggings and street violence. [7] The city became famous for its architectural masterpieces, such as Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of the Eastern Orthodox Church, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, and opulent aristocratic palaces. It is an impressive testament to the strength of tradition how little these arrangements had changed since the office, then known by the Latin version of its title, had been set up in 330 to mirror the urban prefecture of Rome. "Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year Ended June 30, 1912." Before their departure, the ship of the commander Belisarius was anchored in front of the Imperial palace, and the Patriarch offered prayers for the success of the enterprise. Byzantines took back majority of the Anatolia from Turks until they lost it to another Turkish kingdom: Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. [86], The Byzantine Empire used Roman and Greek architectural models and styles to create its own unique type of architecture. Hesychius of Miletus wrote that some "claim that people from Megara, who derived their descent from Nisos, sailed to this place under their leader Byzas, and invent the fable that his name was attached to the city." By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire; after a 53-day siege the city eventually fell to the Ottomans, led by Sultan Mehmed II, on 29 May 1453,[11] whereafter it replaced Edirne (Adrianople) as the new capital of the Ottoman Empire.[12]. Yet it had been the capital of the state for over a thousand years, and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest that the capital be moved to a different location. Private Ephesus Tour from Istanbul in 2021, Private Cappadocia Tour from Istanbul 2021. When the city fell to the Turks in 1453, the church was demolished to make room for the tomb of Mehmet II the Conqueror. It flourished during the reign of the Macedonian emperors; its demise was the consequence of attacks by Seljuk Turks, Crusaders, and Ottoman Turks. [69] However, this act of maintenance is an exception: for the most part, the Latin occupiers were too few to maintain all of the buildings, either secular and sacred, and many became targets for vandalism or dismantling. Constantine's foundation gave prestige to the Bishop of Constantinople, who eventually came to be known as the Ecumenical Patriarch, and made it a prime center of Christianity alongside Rome. argue that these sophisticated fortifications allowed the east to develop relatively unmolested while Ancient Rome and the west collapsed. AM 6030 pg 316, with this note: Theophanes' precise date should be accepted. Vol II, p. 386; Robinson (1965), The First Turkish Republic, p. 298, Commemorative coins that were issued during the 330s already refer to the city as. In terms of technology, art and culture, as well as sheer size, Constantinople was without parallel anywhere in Europe for a thousand years. In 1928, the Turkish alphabet was changed from Arabic script to Latin script. Required fields are marked *, Hello, I'm Serhat Engul. Constantinople existed on the site of an ancient Greek settlement. After the death of Theodosius, the empire was divided into east and west. Filed Under: HISTORY Tagged With: Byzantine. The fact that Muslim forces were so close to Europe triggered the Pope to take urgent measures. "The Chronicle of Theophones Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern History AD 284-813". The name Constantinople was made easy to spell thanks to a novelty song, "C-O-N-S-T-A-N-T-I-N-O-P-L-E," written by Harry Carlton and performed by Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra, in the 1920s. In a short time, many important cities such as Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria were lost. While Constantinople was once again under control of a Greek ruler, its end was drawing near. 1 on p. 49. For the town of that name in ancient Osrhoene, see, Map of Constantinople, corresponding to the modern-day, 324–337: The refoundation as Constantinople, 337–529: Constantinople during the Barbarian Invasions and the fall of the West, 527–565: Constantinople in the Age of Justinian, Survival, 565–717: Constantinople during the Byzantine Dark Ages, 717–1025: Constantinople during the Macedonian Renaissance, 1081–1185: Constantinople under the Comneni, 1185–1261: Constantinople during the Imperial Exile, 1261–1453: Palaiologan Era and the Fall of Constantinople. [6] From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe. On May 29, 1453 CE, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks and the Byzantine Empirecame to an end. Meanwhile, the volume of money in circulation dramatically increased. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23, (1969): 229–249. Great bathhouses were built in Byzantine centers such as Constantinople and Antioch.[88]. The Byzantine army had never really recovered and strengthened after Latin invasion. "Among the masterpieces destroyed, writes Talbot, "were a Herakles attributed to the fourth-century B.C. Author of this blog, Serhat Engul, is a licensed tour guide based in Istanbul. [60] John II built the monastery of the Pantocrator (Almighty) with a hospital for the poor of 50 beds. Constantinople was famed for its massive and complex defences. When Mehmed II finally entered Constantinople through the Gate of Charisius (today known as Edirnekapı or Adrianople Gate), he immediately rode his horse to the Hagia Sophia, where after the doors were axed down, the thousands of citizens hiding within the sanctuary were raped and enslaved, often with slavers fighting each other to the death over particularly beautiful and valuable slave girls. The Roman, Byzantine (or Eastern Roman), Latin and Ottoman empires all coveted the city due to its strategic and commercial importance. Chariot-racing had been important in Rome for centuries. The Byzantine nobility scattered, many going to Nicaea, where Theodore Lascaris set up an imperial court, or to Epirus, where Theodore Angelus did the same; others fled to Trebizond, where one of the Comneni had already with Georgian support established an independent seat of empire. The emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to the citizens. The aristocracy wore fine clothes, including silk, which was first imported from China and Phoenicia and then produced in Constantinople from 568 CE. [43], Justinian also had Anthemius and Isidore demolish and replace the original Church of the Holy Apostles and Hagia Irene built by Constantine with new churches under the same dedication. By the turn of the century the Byzantine Empire had irrevocably lost Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Northern Africa, while the Sassanid state had been overthrown. Diocletian was the first emperor to move the center of the empire to the East. Yule (1915), 46–49; see footnote No. [46], In the early 7th century, the Avars and later the Bulgars overwhelmed much of the Balkans, threatening Constantinople with attack from the west. The settlers had originally come from the Greek city-state of Megara around 667 BC and were ruled by the legendary King Byzas. The city was briefly renamed Augusta Antonina in the early 3rd century AD by the Emperor Septimius Severus (193–211), who razed the city to the ground in 196 for supporting a rival contender in the civil war and had it rebuilt in honour of his son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (who succeeded him as Emperor), popularly known as Caracalla. Thousands of Turkoman tribesmen crossed the unguarded frontier and moved into Anatolia. In 1909, in Constantinople there were 626 primary schools and 12 secondary schools. It marked the main outcome of the Fourth Crusade. The dwindling Byzantine Empire came to an end when the Ottomans breached Constantinople’s ancient land wall after besieging the city for 55 days. [45] However, the social fabric of Constantinople was also damaged by the onset of the Plague of Justinian between 541–542 AD. Unlike the Western Roman Empire, the most important language was Greek, not Latin, and Greek culture and identity dominated. It is certain that the Venetians and others were active traders in Constantinople, making a living out of shipping goods between the Crusader Kingdoms of Outremer and the West, while also trading extensively with Byzantium and Egypt. Around … [18] In Arabic, the city was sometimes called Rūmiyyat al-Kubra (Great City of the Romans) and in Persian as Takht-e Rum (Throne of the Romans). Constantinople was the largest and richest urban center in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the late Eastern Roman Empire, mostly as a result of its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. 156–161. [73] Nicaea and Epirus both vied for the imperial title, and tried to recover Constantinople. Possibly from the largest city in the world with 500,000 inhabitants to just 40,000–70,000: The Inheritance of Rome, Chris Wickham, Penguin Books Ltd. 2009. It was where (as a shadow of the popular elections of old Rome) the people by acclamation showed their approval of a new emperor, and also where they openly criticized the government, or clamoured for the removal of unpopular ministers. Its harbors offered a safe shelters for fishing boats, trading ships, and warships. Princes of Kyiv, Venetian doges, abbots of Monte Cassino, merchants of Amalfi, and the kings of Sicily all looked to Byzantium for artists or works of art. The Byzantine Empire. 114. They were known for their ferocity, honour, and loyalty. For its predecessor in Greek and early Roman times, see, "Constantinopolis" and "Konstantinopolis" redirect here. Dear Oliveiro, Thank you very much for your kind review. In East and South Slavic languages, including in medieval Russia, Constantinople has been referred to as Tsargrad (Царьград) or Carigrad, 'City of the Caesar (Emperor)', from the Slavonic words tsar ('Caesar' or 'King') and grad ('city'). The Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) was the name of the eastern remnant of the Roman Empire which survived into the Middle Ages. By 1080, a huge area had been lost to the Empire, and the Turks were within striking distance of Constantinople.     a narrow strip of the Thracian shore at the mouth of the Pontos, In the late 11th century catastrophe struck with the unexpected and calamitous defeat of the imperial armies at the Battle of Manzikert in Armenia in 1071. In artistic terms, the 12th century was a very productive period. All the emperors up to Zeno and Basiliscus were crowned and acclaimed at the Hebdomon. In Justinian's age the Mese street running across the city from east to west was a daily market. [55], In the 9th and 10th centuries, Constantinople had a population of between 500,000 and 800,000.[56]. Stanford and Ezel Shaw (1977): History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Istanbul Clues travel guide is designed to introduce you to the history, museums, restaurants and culture of istanbul. Constantinople is also of great religious importance to Islam, as the conquest of Constantinople is one of the signs of the End time in Islam. After that, as part of the 1920s Turkification movement, Turkey started to urge other countries to use Turkish names for Turkish cities, instead of other transliterations to Latin script that had been used in Ottoman times. In the 8th and 9th centuries, the iconoclast movement caused serious political unrest throughout the Empire. Byzantium was never a major influential city-state like that of Athens, Corinth or Sparta, but the city enjoyed relative peace and steady growth as a prosperous trading city lent by its remarkable position. Georgacas, Demetrius John (1947). [11], Constantinople was the largest and richest urban center in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the late Eastern Roman Empire, mostly as a result of its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. Many scholars[who?] According to Zaruhi Galemkearian's autobiography, she was told to write about women's place in the family and home after she published two volumes of poetry in the 1890s. Some versions of the founding myth say Byzas was the son of a local nymph, while others say he was conceived by one of Zeus' daughters and Poseidon. set up their dwellings at the place where the rivers Kydaros and Barbyses have their estuaries, one flowing from the north, the other from the west, and merging with the sea at the altar of the nymph called Semestre", The city maintained independence as a city-state until it was annexed by Darius I in 512 BC into the Persian Empire, who saw the site as the optimal location to construct a pontoon bridge crossing into Europe as Byzantium was situated at the narrowest point in the Bosphorus strait. These developments caused the eternal capital Rome to lose its importance. The origins of the name of Byzantion, more commonly known by the later Latin Byzantium, are not entirely clear, though some suggest it is of Thraco-Illyrian origin. 152–153; see also endnote No. [95][97], Capital city of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the Latin and the Ottoman Empire, This article is about the historical city from 330 to 1453. On 25 July 1197, Constantinople was struck by a severe fire which burned the Latin Quarter and the area around the Gate of the Droungarios (Turkish: Odun Kapısı) on the Golden Horn. The Seljuks won a great victory in the Battle of Manzikert and swiftly advanced into Anatolia. Constantinople, once the imperial capital of the Byzantine Empire [Eastern Roman Empire] was the first city where Christianitywas designated the capital religion. In Greece today, the city is still called Konstantinoúpoli(s) (Κωνσταντινούπολις/Κωνσταντινούπολη) or simply just "the City" (Η Πόλη). [63] In 1182, most Latin (Western European) inhabitants of Constantinople were massacred.[64]. It lay on the waterways between the black sea and the Aegean Sea. At last these disorders took the form of a major rebellion of 532, known as the "Nika" riots (from the battle-cry of "Conquer!" The dedication took place on 26 December 537 in the presence of the emperor, who was later reported to have exclaimed, "O Solomon, I have outdone thee! By their style, arrangement, and iconography the mosaics of St. Mark's at Venice and of the cathedral at Torcello clearly reveal their Byzantine origin. The new programme of building was carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors, and tiles were taken wholesale from the temples of the empire and moved to the new city. The modern Turkish name for the city, İstanbul, derives from the Greek phrase eis tin polin (εἰς τὴν πόλιν), meaning "(in)to the city". Turkish warlords on its eastern borders around Nicaea became serious threats. After the construction of the Theodosian Walls in the early 5th century, it was extended to the new Golden Gate, reaching a total length of seven Roman miles. It was a small town that the Greeks first colonized, long before Alexander the Great brought his troops to Anatolia. "Largest cities through history." The city was built intentionally to rival Rome, and it was claimed that several elevations within its walls matched the 'seven hills' of Rome. Although it was not as influential as other cities such as Athens, it enjoyed relative peace and prosperity. [26] Apart from this, little is known about this initial settlement. The Venetians had factories on the north side of the Golden Horn, and large numbers of westerners were present in the city throughout the 12th century. I wish you a nice holiday in Istanbul! I offer PRIVATE HALF DAY TOUR which includes a visit to the Hagia Sophia, Blue Mosque, Hippodrome, Basilica Cistern and the Spice Bazaar. Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı, Istanbul. [89], In the past the Bulgarian newspapers in the late Ottoman period were Makedoniya, Napredŭk, and Pravo. During the rule of the Palaiologan emperors, beginning with Michael VIII in 1261, the economy of the once-mighty Byzantine state was crippled, and never regained its former stature. [18][19] The name appears to have been quickly forgotten and abandoned, and the city reverted to Byzantium/Byzantion after either the assassination of Caracalla in 217 or, at the latest, the fall of the Severan dynasty in 235. Nevertheless, Constantine identified the site of Byzantium as the right place: a place where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers, his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the Empire. Justinian commissioned Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus to replace it with a new and incomparable Hagia Sophia. p. 236. The medieval Vikings, who had contacts with the empire through their expansion in eastern Europe (Varangians) used the Old Norse name Miklagarðr (from mikill 'big' and garðr 'city'), and later Miklagard and Miklagarth. Byzantine Empire - Byzantine Empire - The reforms of Diocletian and Constantine: The definition of consistent policy in imperial affairs was the achievement of two great soldier-emperors, Diocletian (ruled 284–305) and Constantine I (sole emperor 324–337), who together ended a century of anarchy and refounded the Roman state. The Pagan Roman Empire of ancient times and the Christian Byzantine Empire of the Middle Ages were quite different. Short History of Byzantine Empire and its Capital Constantinople. There was a revival in the mosaic art, for example: Mosaics became more realistic and vivid, with an increased emphasis on depicting three-dimensional forms. He came out with the Patriarch to the Golden Milestone before the Great Palace and addressed the Varangian Guard. Justinian’s greatest goal was to take back Rome, the eternal capital of the empire.     Blessed are those who will inhabit that holy city, [53] Later in the 11th Century the Varangian Guard became dominated by Anglo-Saxons who preferred this way of life to subjugation by the new Norman kings of England. Theodosius I ascended the throne when the Roman Empire was in great danger. The Venetians [...] seized treasures and carried them off to adorn [...] their town. However, further sieges followed the Arab conquests, first from 674 to 678 and then in 717 to 718. Yule (1915), 46–48; see also footnote No. Constantinople once again became the capital of a rising empire. From the tenth to the twelfth century Byzantium was the main source of inspiration for the West. The emperor Justinian I (527–565) was known for his successes in war, for his legal reforms and for his public works. [58] Following the death of her son Leo IV in 780, the empress Irene restored the veneration of images through the agency of the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. He found the military situation so dire that he is said to have contemplated withdrawing the imperial capital to Carthage, but relented after the people of Constantinople begged him to stay. It had become too massive to run under just one man. With their capital at Adrianople, further captures included Thessaloniki and Serbia. Justinian II (685-95, and 705-11) had inherited the excellent qualities of his ancestors but grotesquely distorted; he had the instincts of a sult… [32] He would later rebuild Byzantium towards the end of his reign, in which it would be briefly renamed Augusta Antonina, fortifying it with a new city wall in his name, the Severan Wall. But the new Alexius IV found the Treasury inadequate, and was unable to make good the rewards he had promised to his western allies. About.com. [47], While the city withstood a siege by the Sassanids and Avars in 626, Heraclius campaigned deep into Persian territory and briefly restored the status quo in 628, when the Persians surrendered all their conquests. The crusaders continued to attack the East for several centuries. The urban prefects had concurrent jurisdiction over three provinces each in the adjacent dioceses of Thrace (in which the city was located), Pontus and Asia comparable to the 100-mile extraordinary jurisdiction of the prefect of Rome. The generals Belisarius, Mundus and Narses conquered in the name of Justinian. Finished in 537, it reigned as the largest and greatest church of Christendom for a thousand years. Hispano-Moorish art was unquestionably derived from the Byzantine. On his release, however, Romanus found that enemies had placed their own candidate on the throne in his absence; he surrendered to them and suffered death by torture, and the new ruler, Michael VII Ducas, refused to honour the treaty.