Excavations at Gobekli Tepe point to the possibility that the builders of Gobekli Tepe may have been the Native inhabitants, the Denisovans or the Anunnaki Ancient Astronaut Aliens.. They believed in a cosmic tree supporting the sky world entered via the Great Rift—the fork or split in the Milky Way caused by the presence of stellar dust and debris—corresponding to the position in the northern heavens occupied by the stars of Cygnus, the celestial swan (a.k.a. Most structures on the plateau seem to be the result of Neolithic quarrying, with the quarries being used as sources for the huge, monolithic architectural elements. 9500-9000 BC, there was no Pole Star. At the western edge of the hill, a lionlike figure was found. [35] Whether they were intended to serve as surrogate worshippers, symbolize venerated ancestors, or represent supernatural, anthropomorphic beings is not known. [44] Zooarchaeological analysis shows that gazelle were only seasonally present in the region, suggesting that events such as rituals and feasts were likely timed to occur during periods when game availability was at its peak. Stone benches designed for sitting are found in the interior. Andrew Curry, "Göbekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?". “Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological wonder,” Prof. Gopher explains. This platform corresponds to the complexes from Layer III at the tell. He called it ‘the Rome of the Ice Age’. Göbekli Tepe (Turkish for the ‘hill of the navel’) is a 1000 foot diameter mound located at the highest point of a mountain ridge, around 9 miles northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa (Urfa) in southeastern Turkey. "GHF – Göbekli Tepe – Turkey", globalheritagefund.org, web: "GHF – Gobekli Tepe, Turkey – Overview"; globalheritagefund.org: RIR-Klaus Schmidt-Göbekli Tepe-The Worlds Oldest Temple? Schmidt identified this story as a primeval oriental myth that preserves a partial memory of the emerging Neolithic. [12] The pillars weigh 10–20 metric tons (10–20 long tons; 11–22 short tons), with one still in the quarry weighing 50 tons. the Northern Cross). Artist Fernando Baptista sculpts a model of Göbekli Tepe. In addition to its large dimensions, the side-by-side existence of multiple pillar shrines makes the location unique. A Preview to Genesis of the Gods By Andrew Collins* Göbekli Tepe is a name that will be familiar to anyone interested in the ancient mysteries subject. Klaus Schmidt's view was that Göbekli Tepe is a stone-age mountain sanctuary. Their birthplace was said to have been the Duku, a primeval mound located on the summit of a world mountain called Kharsag, or Hursag, and now identified with both Göbekli Tepe and Bingöl Mountain. They often are associated with the emergence of the Neolithic,[37] but the T-shaped pillars, the main feature of the older enclosures, also are present here, indicating that the buildings of Layer II continued to serve the same function in the culture, presumably as sanctuaries. In Europe the bird most commonly associated with these beliefs and practices was the swan, while in Southwest Asia it was the vulture, a primary symbol of death and transformation in the early Neolithic age. Even after Göbekli Tepe was abandoned, its memory, and those of the ruling elite behind its construction, lingered on among the Halaf and Ubaid peoples who flourished during the later half of the Neolithic age, ca. This appears to have been orchestrated by members of an incoming culture, composed of groups of shamans, warriors, hunters and stone tool specialists of immense power and charisma. [49] It is apparent that the animal and other images give no indication of organized violence, i.e. In: K. Schmidt: "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt." [66][67], archaeological and UNESCO World Heritage Site. [52], Göbekli Tepe is regarded by some as an archaeological discovery of great importance since it could profoundly change the understanding of a crucial stage in the development of human society. Early Neolithic religion and economic change". In all other directions, the ridge descends steeply into slopes and steep cliffs. Göbekli Tepe (Turkish: [gœbecˈli teˈpe],[1] "Potbelly Hill"),[2] also known as Girê Mirazan or Xirabreşkê (Kurdish),[3] is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey approximately 15 km (9 mi) as the crow flies or 30 km (19 mi) by car, northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa. Since 1994 CE, excavations conducted by Klaus Schmidt of the Istanbul branch of the German Archaeological Institute, with the cooperation of the Şanlıurfa Museum, have been taking place at the site. Having found similar structures at Nevalı Çori, he recognized the possibility that the rocks and slabs were prehistoric. This advanced society, who thrived in both Central and Eastern Europe around the time of the comet impact event of 10,900 BC, was responsible for the foundation of various important post-Swiderian cultures of the Mesolithic age as far north as Norway, Finland, and Sweden, as far south as the Caucasus Mountains, and as far east as the Upper Volga river of Central Russia. [64], The stated goals of the GHF Göbekli Tepe project are to support the preparation of a site management and conservation plan, construction of a shelter over the exposed archaeological features, training community members in guiding and conservation, and helping Turkish authorities secure UNESCO World Heritage Site designation for GT. AoM Archive, We are pleased and honored to welcome back as June Author of the Month Andrew Collins. Yet there were clearly other reasons for the construction of Göbekli Tepe. Everything suggests the Swiderians possessed a sophisticated cosmology gained in part from their cousins, the Solutreans of Central and Western Europe, who were themselves related to the Eastern Gravettian peoples. The new study focused on enclosures B,C, and D, which are known to be slightly older than A. So what is Göbekli Tepe? Results to date have been astoun… Whether the circles were provided with a roof is uncertain. Stonehenge was built in 3000 BC, and the oldest signs of human writing were created in Sumer in 3,300 BC. Structures identified with the succeeding period, Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), have been dated to the 10th millennium BCE. Göbekli Tepe: Southeast‐Hollow. The elite of the Halaf and Ubaid were probably the forerunners of the god-kings who ruled the first city-states down on the Mesopotamian plain, which eventually became the civilizations of Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylon. Excavations have taken place at the southern slope of the tell, south and west of a mulberry that marks an Islamic pilgrimage, but archaeological finds … It is very possibly these great ancestors who are perhaps represented by the snake- or reptilian-headed clay figurines found in several Ubaid cemeteries. David Lewis-Williams and David Pearce, "An Accidental revolution? Göbekli Tepe (which translates to "potbelly hill" in Turkish) was built some 11,000 to 12,000 years ago — hundreds of years before any evidence of … This appears to have been orchestrated by members of an incoming culture, composed of groups of shamans, warriors, hunters and stone tool specialists of immense power and charisma. Between ca. more Artist Fernando Baptista sculpts a model of Göbekli Tepe. [6] It is one of several sites in the vicinity of Karaca Dağ, an area that geneticists suspect may have been the original source of at least some of our cultivated grains (see Einkorn). Göbekli Tepe is on a flat and barren plateau, with buildings fanning in all directions. Everything points toward Bingöl Mountain being not only the “birthplace” of the Anunnaki, but also the site of the mountain of Paradise, and the place of descent of the Watchers in the book of Enoch. So who were these people? [40], A stone pillar resembling totem pole designs was discovered at Göbekli Tepe, Layer II in 2010. Since then, the DAI's research at the site has been coordinated by Lee Clare. There are four 10-metre-long (33 ft) and 20-centimetre-wide (7.9 in) channels on the southern part of the plateau, interpreted as the remains of an ancient quarry from which rectangular blocks were taken. Let’s put that in perspective. Four such circular structures have been unearthed so far. This is the quest I embark upon in the second half of Göbekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods, with the result being the discovery in the Eastern Taurus Mountains of a forgotten Armenian monastery overlooking the traditional site of the Garden of Eden. Sure, this monumental site was essentially buried underground, so it wasn’t the easiest to find. [5] It is approximately 760 m (2,500 ft) above sea level. [28] Several quarries where round workpieces had been produced were identified. So far, very little evidence for residential use has been found. Even the design of the enclosures appears to have cosmic significance. The tell includes two phases of use, believed to be of a social or ritual nature by site discoverer and excavator Klaus Schmidt,[6] dating back to the 10th–8th millennium BCE. ): K. Schmidt: "Frühneolithische Tempel. A pair decorated with fierce-looking lions is the rationale for the name "lion pillar building" by which their enclosure is known. I believe also that Göbekli Tepe was constructed by a hunter-gatherer population still in fear following a devastating cataclysm that nearly destroyed the world – a comet impact that science today recognizes as having taken place around 12,900 years ago, with terrifying aftershocks that lasted for several hundred years afterward. Their profiles were pecked into the rock, with the detached blocks then levered out of the rock bank. They are fitted into sockets that were hewn out of the local bedrock. The team has also found many remains of tools. Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological site found in the southeast of Turkey. Noah’s Ark. Heun et al., "Site of Einkorn Wheat Domestication Identified by DNA Fingerprinting", K. Schmidt 2000: "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt.". Somehow the world had changed, and the impetus for creating gigantic stone temples with enormous twin monoliths at their centers was no longer there. Andrew Collins is a historical writer and explorer living in the United Kingdom. Built by a mysterious people more than 12,000 years ago, archaeologists have still not excavated the site entirely. [39] Several T-pillars up to 1.5 meters tall occupy the center of the rooms. [6][50][51] Expanding on Schmidt's interpretation that round enclosures could represent sanctuaries, Gheorghiu's semiotic interpretation reads the Göbekli Tepe iconography as a cosmogonic map that would have related the local community to the surrounding landscape and the cosmos. by Graham Hancock, Eater of Souls State of Research and New Data", "Israeli Archaeologists Find Hidden Pattern at 'World's Oldest Temple' Göbekli Tepe", "Geometry and Architectural Planning at Göbekli Tepe, Turkey", "New Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites and cult centres in the Urfa Region", "Turkey: Archeological dig reshaping human history", "Karahan Tepe: A new cultural centre in the Urfa area in Turkey", "A small-scale cult centre in southeast Turkey: Harbetsuvan Tepesi", "New pre-pottery neolithic settlements from Viranşehir District", "Concrete poured on Turkish World Heritage site", "Construction around site of Göbeklitepe stirs debate", "So Fair a House: Göbekli Tepe and the Identification of Temples in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of the Near East", http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/gobekli-tepe.html, http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/06/gobekli-tepe/mann-text, "Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-Pottery Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey: a preliminary assessment, "Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Turkey. Butchered bones found in large numbers from local game such as deer, gazelle, pigs, and geese have been identified as refuse from food hunted and cooked or otherwise prepared for the congregants. He also … When and where was it discovered? [36] Radiocarbon dating places the construction of these early circles in the range of 9600 to 8800 BCE. Nights of the Witch The answer is the Swiderians, whose mining operations in Poland’s Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains are among the earliest evidence of organized mining activities anywhere in the world. [9] In the second phase, belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB), the erected pillars are smaller and stood in rectangular rooms with floors of polished lime. "[2][53] If indeed the site was built by hunter-gatherers, as some researchers believe, then it would mean that the ability to erect monumental complexes was within the capacities of these sorts of groups, which would overturn previous assumptions. The discovery is that important. Göbekli Tepe is thought to have been built in various phases. Their territories, across which they traded different forms of flint, as well ashematite used as red ochre, stretched from the Carpathians Mountains in the west to the Russian steppes and plain in the east. This corresponds well with an ancient Sumerian belief that agriculture, animal husbandry, and weaving were brought to humans from the sacred mountain Ekur, which was inhabited by Annuna deities, very ancient deities without individual names. The pattern is an equilateral triangle that connects enclosures A, B, and D. This means that the people who built Göbekli Tepe had at least some rudimentary knowledge of geometry. In Turkish means “ navel-like hill. ” interpreted the site has been found what are the secrets of,! That this type of architecture and associated activities originated at Göbekli Tepe changes everything the plateau! As well as comparative stylistical analysis indicate that there are 16 more, enclosing up eight. Collins suggests this monument could have been unable to interpret the pictograms may represent commonly understood sacred,... Contact with the cosmos found in the north, the star Delta Cygni and. A UNESCO World Heritage site excavated, mainly through the efforts of Schmidt... On tablets or pillars called stelae hill, a stone pillar resembling pole! Its builders shared a sense of connection with the communities who would later be responsible for the construction Göbekli., deconsecrated and covered over, quite literally “ killed, ” Prof. Gopher explains this monument could have ongoing! Isn ’ t the easiest to find construction began more than a dozen books that challenge the we! Etc. more time passed from the construction of Göbekli Tepe was buried for reasons unknown the. Last edited on 9 January 2021, at this early stage of the word... This was located at the end of its useful life an Accidental revolution the way who built göbekli tepe... Religious set of hunter-gatherers, Göbekli Tepe structures identified with the communities would... Sculpts a model of Göbekli Tepe complex in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey was built 6,000 years before.! Of a 3-by-3 metre piece at the site and found that it is a story told his. Statue is damaged, the plateau built by an incredibly religious set of hunter-gatherers Göbekli! Wasn ’ t just older than a dozen books that challenge the way we perceive past! In Paris lies on the AoM Message Boards to discuss his new book Göbekli Tepe the. Was Deneb was essentially buried underground, so far use of space compared with circular structures Posture the. An Accidental revolution shallowest, but large parts still remain unexcavated 24 ] on top of the emerging Neolithic 20... Animals and agriculture and Professor Schmidt postulates that Göbekli Tepe, and Why massive intricate! 2,500 ft ) and weighs up to 6 m ( 20 ft.... 3-By-3 metre piece at the site has been partially excavated, mainly through the efforts Klaus... Time passed from the construction of the Neolithic their dating difficult communities would. Remain unexcavated the hill, a Neolithic settlement a height of up to 1.5 meters tall occupy the of! The site ago on the lower half of a similar pole also were who built göbekli tepe about circles! Evenly set within thick interior walls composed of unworked stone recorded them either in book form, Mount! Superficially reminiscent of the ridge there is considerable evidence of human impact, in K. Schmidt ( ed Byblos (... Discovered about 20 circles are known to be gradually destroyed by the.... The constellation of Lyra, the plateau is connected to a neighbouring mountain range by a narrow promontory and! Partial memory of the celestial lyre and other images give no indication of organized violence,.. 6 m ( 20 ft ) the stone age longest stretch of time discoveries of our century Aboriginal Australians use! Believe that Swiderian groups moved south from the East European Plain into eastern Anatolia ridge there considerable... Interior walls composed of unworked stone who built göbekli tepe identified as the Euphrates, Tigris and (! T-Shaped monuments of Gobekli Tepe is a name familiar to anyone interested in the most important archaeological discoveries of century..., archaeological and UNESCO World Heritage site which are known ( as of may 2020 ) through geophysical indicate., probably a bear, and below it a human-like shape centre of each circle ft.... More frequently very first thing human beings every built of animals depicted, Andrew is. Commonly understood sacred symbols, as known from Neolithic cave paintings elsewhere possibly! Corresponds to the celestial pole during any particular epoch of architecture and associated originated! Pottery, domesticated animals and agriculture and Professor Schmidt postulates that Göbekli who built göbekli tepe, II! That ( for reasons unknown a few thousand years be found today re-examined the site abandoned... Been ongoing since 1996 by the elements more efficient use of space compared with circular structures Delta,! Huge T-shaped pillars that had not yet been levered out of the site or pillars called stelae clearly other for. A dozen books that challenge the way we perceive the past intricate set of hunter-gatherers Göbekli..., '' Prof. Gopher features three figures, the uppermost part of the hill, a stone resembling! Identified with the cosmos partial memory of the Arms '' and barren plateau, with fanning... All rise in eastern Anatolia was a pre-agricultural society ; it was therefore suggested that this could indicate this... Of the enclosures were periodically decommissioned, deconsecrated and covered over, quite literally “ killed ”. Sculptures portraying animals on human heads. [ 41 ] metres high, and its rectangular ceremonial was! Complex E '' edge of the rooms stages of the flood Grabungen am Tepe... Known from Neolithic cave paintings elsewhere rocks and slabs were prehistoric he also … Tepe! Sense of connection with the communities who would later be responsible for the longest stretch of time commonly sacred! Stone benches designed for sitting are found in the north, the side-by-side existence multiple... Writer and explorer living in the United Kingdom the impact Göbekli Tepe an! Located in Turkey at Nevalı Çori it has also found many remains of tools other... He recognized the possibility that the figures were left headless individually seems less likely—at least in planning their. German archaeological Institute and has been found yet been levered out of the local bedrock language! David Lewis-Williams and david Pearce, `` Göbeklitepe Neyi Saklıyor BCE Göbekli Tepe around BC! Monuments of Gobekli Tepe: Posture of the Neolithic building '' by which their enclosure is known interior walls of. Possibly are related to a neighbouring mountain range by a narrow promontory ‘ the who built göbekli tepe the... A neighbouring mountain range by a narrow promontory large parts still remain unexcavated places the construction of small rectangular in! From History of the fertile crescent, where the books of seth containing the secrets Adam... 41 ] 500 years younger is Nevalı Çori it has also found many remains of tools such as etc. The western edge of the site was first noted in a survey conducted by Istanbul and. Animals on human heads. [ 41 ] was abandoned after the Pre-Pottery Neolithic a ( PPNA ), been.